Close Window

NamePynacker, Adam
Other NamePijnacker, Adam
Date1622 - 1673
Pupil of
Teacher ofWynants, Jan
Collaboration with
Akin toGeest, Wijbrand de
Friend of
Also found inNGAW ARCenter Wgahu CGFA
Artcyclo SFFA Hermit Boston
Rijks Courtauld Bredius WallaceColl
Insecula CiudaddelaPintura Grove Ulan
Mauritshuis Intofineart AskART Arthermitage
Artproject > Autores > Lista general de autores > ABCD...

DulwichPictureGall. /
BiographyBridge in an Italian Landscape c.1653-54"
Schiedam near Rotterdam, 1620 (?)- 1673 Amsterdam, a peasant playing with his dog while resting at the margin of a wood"

15.02.1622 Pijnaker bei Delft - 28.03.1673 Amsterdam


Adam Pynacker ~1620/22 - 1673
Dutch, c. 1620 - 1673

Adam Pynacker's approximate date of birth can be deduced
from a document of January 22, 1652 in which he is
recorded as being thirty-one years old. He was almost
certainly born in Schiedam. Following the occupation of
his father Christiaen Pynacker, he first appears to have
had a career as a wine merchant. In this capacity he
traveled to Delft where he met the Delft innkeeper,
painter and art dealer Adam Pick (c. 1622-before 1666)
who became a close associate of Pynacker's family. Only
one painting by Pick survives, making it impossible to
establish any stylistic influence Pick may have had on
Pynacker, though he presumably helped him establish his
career as a painter. Pynacker is recorded in Delft in
1649-1651 and 1657, and seems to have worked frequently
in that city, although he may have continued to live in
Schiedam, where documents mention him in 1651, 1652, and
1658. In 1654-1655, Pynacker worked for the Brandenburg
court at Lenzen in Germany. Several of his paintings
appear in Delft inventories of the early 1650s, and in
about 1653 the Delft painter Leonaert Bramer (1596-1674)
sketched copies of three of his landscapes.

On September 20, 1658, Pynacker married Eva Maria de
Geest, the daughter of the portrait painter Wijbrand de
Geest (1592-after 1660). Upon his marriage he converted
to Catholicism, and his two children were baptized as
Catholics in Schiedam in 1660 and 1661. During the 1660s
Pynacker moved to Amsterdam, where he is recorded in 1669
and 1671, although he is also documented in Schiedam
again in 1670, the year of his last dated painting. He
died in Amsterdam in March 1673.

Houbraken (see person bibliography) states that Pynacker
spent several years in Italy. While his atmospheric,
idyllic landscapes have a strongly Italianate character,
no documentary evidence proves that he did indeed travel
to Italy. He may have learned about the Italian campagna
through the works of other artists, particularly Jan
Asselijn (c. 1615-1652) and Jan Both (c. 1615-1652),
whose works seem to have been a source of inspiration.
Nevertheless, Pynacker's landscapes are compositionally
quite imaginative and adhere only rarely to the classical
principles of composition favored by other Italianizing
Dutch landscape painters. Pynacker also executed a few
series of large landscapes that were commissioned by
wealthy merchants as decorative ensembles to adorn their
town houses and country properties.

Bibliographic References

* Félibien, André. Entretiens sur les vies et sur les
ouvrages des plus excellents peintres anciens et
modernes. 5 vols. Paris, 1666-1688: 5:44.
* Houbraken 1753, 2:96-99.
* Smith 1829-1842, 6(1835):285-300; 9(1842):750-755.
* Blankert, Albert. Dutch 17th-Century Italianate
Landscape Painters. Utrecht, 1978: 184-194.
* Sutton, Peter C. et al. Masters of
Seventeenth-Century Dutch Landscape Painting. Exh.
cat. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1987: 394-402.
* Harwood, Laurie B. Adam Pynacker. Doornspijk, 1988.
* Wheelock, Jr., Arthur K. Dutch Paintings of the
Seventeenth Century. The Collections of the National
Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington,
D.C., 1995: 201.


(b. 1620/21, Pijnacker, d. 1673, Amsterdam)

Dutch landscape painter, active mainly in Delft and in
Amsterdam. He was in Italy for three years (before 1649) and he
was one of the outstanding Dutch exponents of Italianate landscapes.
His style resembles that of Jan Both and Jan Asselyn, but his mature
work often has a distinctive and attractive silvery tonality.
Web Gallery of Art, created by Emil Kren and Daniel Marx.


In both style and subject matter, Adam Pynacker belongs to the group of artists known as the Dutch Italianates. Pynacker spent three years in Italy between 1645 and 1648. His earliest, mostly small-scale, paintings incorporate three elements: evocation of strong Italian light and atmosphere, reproduction of nature in minute detail, and a cool, monochrome palette enlivened by touches of red or ultramarine. His solo travels to Italy were the main inspiration for his subject interest, and his style and composition evolved in a distinct Dutch Italianate tradition. His landscapes depict primarily views of rivers, harbors, and the Roman countryside, often incorporating peasants performing everyday tasks. In the 1650s, Pynacker introduced the theme of hunting in his paintings, which was encouraged by the work of Ludolf de Jongh and Jan Baptist Weenix. In his later career, his paintings became large and more fanciful, occasionally tending toward turbulent images. Though at the end of his career his paintings are set apart from his earlier works by greater stylization, there remains an effect of subtle tonal changes and a pure quality of light.

SpecialSon-in-law of Geest, Wijbrand de

Painted by Eisen, Charles Rotterdam

StyleAnimals,Architecture,Baroque Era,Botany,Fishing&Hunting,Goats&Sheep,Landscapes,Marine

Close Window